“ What is Ma’ruf (Right) and Munkar (Wrong)?
Carrying out the punishments prescribed by Allah on whoever transgresses the bounds of the Shari’a is a part of prohibiting wrong. It is obligatory upon those in authority (Uluu-ul-amr) i.e. the scholars from each group or nation, and their amirs, and their elders, to stand over the general population enjoining good and prohibiting wrong, thus ordering them with all that which Allah and His Prophet have enjoined. For example, the rulings of Islamic Law (Shari’a) e.g. the five prayers in their proper time periods, obligatory alms, obligatory fasting, and pilgrimage to makka. Also, belief in Allah, His angels, His revealed books, His prophets, and the Judgement Day, belief in the pre-destination of all things the good and the bad, and the concept of ihsaan (the higest level of iman or faith) which means to worship Allah as if you see Him for, verily, even if you do not see Him, He always sees you. Moreover, the good (ma’ruf) includes everything both internal and external which has been enjoined by Allah and His Prophet. These include: absolute sincerity to Allah (ikhlaas), dependance on Allah (tawakkal), that Allah and His Prophet be more beloved to the believer than anyone else, hope for Allah’s mercy and fear of His punishment, patience with the decree of Allah and complete surrender to His order, truthfulness of speech, fulfilling of obligations, returning trusts to their owners, good behavior towards parents, maintaining of family ties, cooperation in all acts of righteousness and good, benevolence and generosity towards one’s neighbors, orphans, poor people, stranded travellers, companions, spouses, and servants, justice and fairness in speech and actions, calling people to good character, and acts of forebearance such as establishing relations with those who cut you off, giving those who deny you, and forgiving those who oppress you. Enjoining people to be close together and cooperative, and forbidding them differing and dividing themselves is also a part of enjoining what is right.
As for the bad (munkar) which Allah and His Prophet have forbidden, its ultimate and worst form is te association of partners with Allah. Associationism means to pray to someone or something else along with Allah. This partner could be the sun, the moon, stars or planets, an angel, one of the prophets, a righteous man or saint, one of the jinn, images or graves of any of these, or anything else which is called to other than Allah the Exalted. Associationism is also to seek aid or succor from any of the above, or to prostrate to them. All of this and anything like it is the associationism (shirk) forbidden by Allah on the tongues of all his prophets.
Everything which Allah has forbidden is also part of the minkar such as unjustified killing, taking people’s property by unlawful means, taking of property by force or intimidation, interest, or gambling, all types of sales or contracts which the Prophet has prohibited, breaking of family ties, cruelty to parents, cheating in weights and measures, and any form of transgression on the rights of others. Also in this category are all innovated acts of ‘worship’ which Allah and His prophet have not ordained or sanctioned. ”